Emperor Frederick II Signs Treaty With Sultan of Egypt Hot

Emperor Frederick II Signs Treaty With Sultan of Egypt

Court of Emperor Frederick II in Palermo
Source: Web Gallery of Art

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Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen signs a treaty with Sultan Malik Al-Kamil of Egypt and thus acquires control of Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem. Al-Kamil has been impressed with Frederick's knowledge of Arabic language and culture, leading to a mutual exchange of ideas and respect which allows the dramatic and unexpected peace treaty to be signed.

In exchange, Frederick agrees to support Al-Kamil against his own nephew, al-Nasir. A negotiated peace hadn't been Frederick's original goal. Circumstances forced him to try this course of action: Pope Gregory IX had excommunicated him so most of the Crusaders (for example, Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar) refused to obey his commands.

Pope Gregory IX wanted a military solution to the conflict, so he refuses to accept the treaty as valid and doesn't support it. Nevertheless the treaty lasts for its full ten year term.

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